It has been acknowledged for some years that the early years in school are the key to later success in learning. The importance of this stage has been recognised through the introduction of the new Foundation Phase in Wales, and the Foundation stage in the UK.

Despite the recent emphasis on introducing reading skills at an early stage, the proportion of children who struggle to learn to read has increased. This has led to a change in emphasis in early schooling, which now in both Wales and the UK is trying to develop strong foundations for later more formal schooling. In order to do this, we must emphasise the skills that children need to have in place before they are ready to learn.

This intervention programme helps children who may require additional support putting in place an intervention programme that can easily be delivered within an inclusive school setting, without the need for extra resources.

Why a Programme for the Early Years?

Many intervention programmes produced for early years teachers focus on early reading development and include specific activities and games relating to letter knowledge, high frequency words and sentence building using words and pictures. This resource is aimed at suggesting a range of multisensory activities which utilise concrete objects and everyday tools to provide practice in skills at the pre-literacy stage. As children mature they may increase their understanding of symbols, moving from the concrete to the abstract and they can then accept pictures for games instead of objects and eventually written words.

The programme will address all aspects of early literacy, physical development and readiness to learn and will be a useful resource for teachers who identify children who are struggling to interact independently in their learning environment within the Foundation Phase.

The aim of this resource is to give teachers the opportunity to focus on key developmental skills and to build an awareness and confidence in understanding and identifying the underlying specific needs of some children.

Early identification can then be supplemented with a short term intervention which engages the whole child in learning through play in accordance with the Foundation Phase pedagogical principles. It allows the teacher to focus on individual progress and the development of each child.

The activities are designed to incorporate games which are fun for the children to participate in and which will engage them in activity-based learning which they will anticipate with enthusiasm and excitement within a structured plan. They will have the opportunity to establish secure learning pathways, talk about what they are doing and so consolidate the patterns and processes of skill development in which they are engaged. The programme has been developed with the support of teachers in the Foundation Phase who have piloted the structured activities and have given positive feedback and recommendations.

The Early Intervention Programme

All children in the reception year are screened using the Dyslexia Early Screening Test. Children identified with gaps in their pre-reading skills are then included in the intervention programme. The Intervention takes place over a 12-week period following an introductory week of the activities.

The interventions involve structured multisensory teaching through games and activities based on five areas of development. This includes phonological awareness, visual, spatial and auditory memory and sequencing. It also draws upon fine and gross motor skills development as documented in the ‘Do and Discover’ school pack which includes fun activities to develop physical skills in the early years.

About the Programme

    • The programme of activities has been developed to provide a range of opportunities to promote and practise various aspects of early pre-literacy skills. Each activity is presented under a heading which defines the area of development to which it relates.
    • The activities should be adapted to fit themes and planning notes so that the activities complement classroom learning. Ideas can be changed slightly but should still maintain their structured, cumulative sequence. All the equipment and games should be easily found or made in a reception classroom and they are all designed to be interesting, motivating and enjoyable.
    • The activities are carefully structured to provide a balance of skill development and encourage multi-tasking. They build in a small step-by-step approach so that children are assured success and progress slowly and steadily.

    Phonological Awareness

    • Phonological awareness or sensitivity to the sound structure of words has been shown to be a powerful and stable long-term predictor of reading achievement and a very important component of successful literacy development. Once children are aware of the patterns of sounds in words they hear, it is easier for them to develop their knowledge of how these patterns are represented in writing.
    • Research suggests that specific early intervention programmes based on all aspects of phonological awareness have a lasting influence on progress. Therefore the programme in ‘Hands on Literacy’ focuses on syllables, rhyme and alliteration and suggests a series of games which should enhance the children’s phonological awareness.
    • Syllables are introduced first as they are the largest units of sound and syllable segmentation has been shown to be easier for children to develop than phoneme segmentation.
    • Young children enjoy rhyme, making up new and nonsense words, singing songs with repetitive tunes and telling or singing nursery rhymes. They may enjoy the music of the words for their own sake but they are also tuning in to patterns in words and developing their auditory sequential skills. Rhyme is an essential feature of the programme and, along with onset and rime games, should build up confidence in an enjoyable way. Children may use a visual approach to recognising whole words quite naturally but many have difficulty in distinguishing shape and pattern. An awareness of onset and rime allows them to apply analogies in order to learn new words.
    • Although there is a strong emphasis on developing phoneme knowledge in early years’ classrooms there are still some children who show signs of underachieving in this area and who fail to acquire the alphabetic principles i.e. letter naming in particular. Therefore, a range of multisensory approaches to letter knowledge is suggested.

    Introducing the phonemes

    • The majority of successful intervention programmes for early literacy focus upon the acquisition of letter sound knowledge in a prerequisite order – i t p n s
    • The thinking behind this is based on the knowledge that young children’s oral kinesthetic awareness is the strongest sense and can be seen in their inclination to explore new objects by putting them in their mouth. The consonants ‘t, p, n, s’ are made with the lips, teeth, and tongue touching different parts of the mouth so that the oral, kinesthetic feedback can aid memory of how to make the sound. Try saying the sounds slowly and notice how your lips come together and where your tongue and lips are when you make the sounds. They are also very different in shape so there is little scope for confusion.
    • The choice of only one vowel, ‘i’, being introduced is because the short vowels a, e, i, o, u are often the most easily confused of the letter sounds.
    • When you make these sounds your mouth stays open and there are only slight variations in shape from one short vowel sound to another which means there is very little differentiation in oral kinaesthetic feedback. In addition, short, top to bottom strokes are the easiest pattern for children to learn to copy first and children love adding the dot! – ‘i’ is much easier than a circular ‘a’ which has joins and verticals to learn.
    • When these letters are combined to make words there are many combinations including initial consonant blends e.g. sp, sn, st, to add to the various rimes of in, it, ip, is, plus the addition of the ‘s’ in the plural or verb so that children are quickly introduced to a whole range of words which they can recognise, read and spell without the added complication of long vowels and phonically irregular spelling.
    • The next letter to be introduced is ‘a’ which opens up a new range of familiar phonically regular words. By this stage the children will be able to make the circles, loops and zig-zag patterns of other letters.

    Auditory memory

    • In order to learn effectively in the classroom environment it is important for children to develop good listening skills, to understand what they hear and to be selective in their listening. The development of auditory sequential memory skills is vital in order to distinguish and manipulate sounds in words. It is important when a child begins to use a phonic approach to decoding or to remember a sequence of words in a sentence or in a story.
    • It is possible to train a child to listen intently, to focus on specific sounds and to distinguish sounds accurately so that it can be a conscious act.
    • ‘Hands on Literacy’ offers some complementary activities which develop listening and auditory sequential memory skills in particular, as these are areas of development which often show up as specific areas of difficulty. Games which focus on telling stories, singing rhymes and playing musical instruments in an unthreatening environment of small group play, should give children more confidence in developing these skills.
    • There appears to be a strong correlation between naming speed and reading skill and children who struggle with finding a word or use ‘um,’ ‘thing’ etc. often have parallel difficulties with word recall in reading and may become hesitant readers. Good readers need to be able to retrieve words rapidly from their own internal language store in order to match them with the equivalent squiggles on the page. Therefore, the programme provides rapid naming games to give children with this specific need an opportunity to practise.
    • The teachers in the pilot project found that these games were easily incorporated into classroom routines, sometimes adapting them so that the whole class could join in the fun.

    Visual memory

    • Visual memory involves the ability to recall an object, picture or symbol once it has been removed from sight. The young brain can be encouraged to observe and develop memory skills through a step-by-step approach. It is already wired to develop strong neural pathways from the repetition of patterns and experiences.
    • Children who have difficulties with a ‘look and say’ approach to reading or with sight vocabulary will rely more heavily upon phonic approaches and could benefit from developing more efficient visual memory skills to read abstract symbols like letters and numbers. The skills need to be introduced and reinforced through a wide range of developmentally appropriate activities.
    • Visual memory games can boost short-term memory skills, visual perception, attention to visual detail, visual motor integration and visual spatial awareness.
    • There are a range of games and activities in the programme which address these skills, some using objects and pictures; others deal with labelling correctly and holding names in working memory. Copying and tracking activities are also explored as these develop familiarity with common shapes and patterns needed for writing fluency.
    • Other games for developing visual spatial memory may involve large apparatus and are best enjoyed outside.
    • These games help children to remember sequences of movement e.g. a toy bear being jumped from cushion to cushion, or a frog jumping from one coloured ‘lily pad’ to another.
    • Many of these games can be presented in a circuit so that the children are enjoying a variety of activities and skills together.

    Manual Dexterity

    • The programme has been developed to provide a range of activities which develop fine motor skills.
    • It is vital to develop the hand muscles and to model and practise specific movements and sequences of movements before children are expected to draw and write. Many children are unable to hold a writing tool effectively because they have insufficient practise with finger and hand exercises and their muscles are underdeveloped. They are often expected to write patterns in letters and words which they are not ready to copy. Multisensory activities which enable the child to explore pattern–making, in a structured progressive small step approach, using different media, have been selected for the Hands on Literacy Programme.
    • Sensory experience (touch and feel) and hand strength using different grips are explored for pulling, pushing and pressing. The activities develop manipulative skills, like picking things up and letting go with accuracy, holding and using toys for play and using tools like pencils and pegs.
    • Good eye-hand co-ordination is needed for language and perceptual development so there are activities using hands and eyes together for fine motor skills such as pointing, pencil skills, tracing, cutting and threading.
    • The range of activities includes threading and colour sequencing of various materials, games with pegs and tongs, using dough and ideas for flexing and stretching the hand muscles.
    • Finger rhymes are suggested – there are many finger puppets available which illustrate stories and rhymes and children will enjoy telling their own stories as well as singing or retelling familiar ones.

    Physical Development Skills – Do and Discover and Play to Learn

    • Active Movement and its Importance for Development
      For the developing child the ability to move the body and explore the environment influences intellectual social and emotional development. It leads to knowledge and understanding about the world and how they fit into it. It also helps them to develop and formulate concepts and ideas which are shown through drawing and writing. Children learn to move and move to learn.
    • Children’s brains develop very fast in early childhood. The way the brain develops is influenced by genes, but also on the experiences the child is exposed to. All children are different and learn to do things at different times, but physical movement helps make connections between the different parts of the brain.
    • The activities in this section are based on ‘Do and Discover’ and ‘Movers and Creators – fun activities to develop physical skills in the early years’, a publication compiled by Sharon Drew. We have also developed physical skills using Sports Wales ‘Play to Learn’ Resource Cards.
    • The activities address both gross and fine motor development which support strength and control of the muscles; co-ordination of both sides of the body; space and directional awareness; muscle memory and recall – kinaesthetic memory; balance and using hands and eyes together for larger motor skills, such as throwing and catching.
    • All the activities are multi-sensory and many of them relate to several areas of skill together, developing different parts of the body and exercising different aspects of motor memory simultaneously, all in one activity. All are fun for children and staff alike.
    • It is important to refer to the ‘Do and Discover’, ‘Movers and Creators’ handbook and ‘Play and Learn Cards’ to ensure that the principles and recommended practice is followed and it will give guidance to monitor the progress of each child in relation to their overall development.
    • The materials for these activities can be found in most classrooms, but it is important that outdoor activity is included. Besides those resources stored in the multi-sensory area, or intervention box, in the classroom, there should be availability and access to larger play resources in the outdoor play area.

More about the Activities

  1. Phonological Awareness

    Nursery rhymes – introducing and revising popular rhymes.

    • Choose one or two familiar rhymes and practise singing them together, emphasising the rhymes.
    • Use actions to illustrate the story. (These take time to become embedded and will need a lot of practice, but they are fun to do).
    • The children will have some firm favourites.
    • Collect objects which illustrate the rhymes, e.g. star.
    • Add other objects which rhyme with it, e.g. car.
    • Collect the objects in a rhyme prompt bag. (This is especially helpful to familiarise rhyming pairs for some children who are having difficulty with the concept of rhyme).
    • Take one of the objects out of the bag – Can the children guess what the other rhyming object will be?

    Alliteration – Letter actions and matching game.

    • Make a collection of objects with the same initial sound and keep them in a bag or box. Play matching games asking the children to point, and say the letter and object name individually. Limit the activity to a few sounds at one time.
    • Can the children make the action for the initial sound of the objects as they are put back in the bag?
    • Organise a letter hunt in the classroom, playground or nature area.
    • Use plastic letters, card templates or arrange, e.g. sticks, in a letter shape and see who can find the most letters.
    • Start with one letter at a time and build up to three. If there are some letters which are presenting problems choose that one on its own and practise several times.

    Segmentation / syllables – names – clapping/tapping syllables in children’s names.

    • Teacher says the first syllable of a name and the children say the second syllable and so on.
    • Children point with each syllable at the child whose name is being used.
    • Progress to familiar objects and ask the children to clap / tap / point out the syllables as they say the words.
    • Collect objects together in syllable groups and play sorting and matching games. (Take care not to muddle phoneme and syllable counting – with phonemes the children count the sounds and with syllables, the beats).
    • Progress to using pictures as prompts.
    • Collect pictures according to the theme and cut them up into the same number of pieces as there are syllables in their names (e.g. rabbit – 2 pieces).
    • Ask the children to put them back together saying each syllable aloud as they pick up the pieces and place them together.
    • Build up to three or four syllables.
    • Later the syllables can be written on the pictures.

    Auditory memory

    Recognising sounds and musical instruments.

    • Children close their eyes and identify sounds made, e.g. tearing a piece of paper, bouncing a ball, jingling money.
    • Collect a small number of simple musical percussion instruments and let the children explore the sounds they make.
    • Can they differentiate the sounds and give them names?
    • Play two of the now familiar instruments in turn behind a screen and ask the children to listen carefully.
    • Can they tell you which one you played first?
    • Have duplicate instruments for the children to play and ask them to reproduce the sounds in the same order. (This may need lots of repetition before the children can do it confidently).
    • Build up to three instruments, but beware of moving on to more unless they are finding it very easy.

    ‘I went out to play with…’

    • Ensure that the children know each other’s names and ask them to point to each other and say who they went out to play with.
    • Can they remember one or two names in sequence?
    • Vary the game – ‘I went shopping and I bought…’
    • Or link to the theme or topic of the week – ‘The rabbit went hopping and he met…’

    Rapid naming – pointing to and naming objects

    • Collect a range of familiar objects and place them on a tray.
    • Can the children point to the objects and name them all?
    • Start with a different object and name again.
    • Start with a couple of objects and as they become familiar add more items and give lots of opportunity for practice.
    • This activity can be linked to objects collected for rhyming games, alliterative games or can be linked to the theme.
    • When the children become more confident the objects can be hidden and the children have to remember and repeat the sequence of the items they have named.
    • This can be a timed activity using a sand-timer or a stop watch, but beware of introducing the timed, competitive element until accuracy is achieved.

    Visual Memory

    What’s missing?

    • Naming six objects on a tray – link to theme.
    • Ask the children to look carefully and name all the objects.
    • Build up familiarity with the objects.
    • Discuss what they are used for, their colour, shape and texture.
    • Encourage the children to pick them up and explore their properties.

    Rapid naming

    • Ask the children to point to each object in turn and name it.
    • Then remove one of the objects and ask the children to look and say what is missing.
    • Pointing at and naming those that are left may be helpful.
    • Repeat until all the objects have had a turn at being removed. Repeat naming of objects.

    Copying patterns

    • Patterns can be copied from a clear model using just their fingers on textured materials, e.g. carpet, cord, silk, velvet or in shaving foam or sand to give good tactile feedback and to develop kinaesthetic memory patterns.
    • Vary this by using coloured chalk on boards or outside – it will wash away!
    • The children should find drawing vertical lines the easiest. Start with these drawn from top to bottom.
    • Repeat patterns of two/three or four lines together.
    • Progress to copying zigzags, waves and wiggly lines, circles, drawn clockwise and finally, figures of eight.
    • Use felt pens in different colours to create a rainbow effect or use crayons, paints or squeezy water bottles in the playground. (Links with activities in Write Dance).
    • Frog jumps with bean bags page 23 (Do and Discover).
    • The children throw bean bags onto lily pads following a sequence the adult has modelled. Start with two and three throws.
    • Start further away and increase the distance gradually. If they can cope with four or five in a sequence, practise frequently.

    Manual Dexterity/Sequencing and Colour

    • There are more activities in this section, so choose one timed activity per week, fine and gross motor.
    • Threading and sequencing – see page 117 (Do and Discover)
      • Use beads first then scrunchies, cotton reels and lids for sequencing colour and pattern.
      • Gather together a collection of soft and hard discs, plastic bottle tops with holes in, large straws cut into pieces, cotton reels, buttons, beads, etc.
      • Show the children how to thread onto a variety of strings, plastic rods, wooden dowels, coloured pipe cleaners and laces, and encourage the children to copy a sequence or colour pattern.
      • Start with large beads and progress to smaller materials. Remember that threading soft materials like scrunchies develops a different set of finger muscles to open out the rings.
      • Aim to encourage the children to copy a sequence/pattern according to object or colour.
      • Start with one or two different items and gradually introduce more, lengthening the sequence and increasing the complexity of the sequence according to colour and/or pattern.
      • Use lolly sticks or plastic cups in a sequence for the children to copy.

    Peg activities – see pages 107 + 109 + Tongs and tweezers page 115 (Do and Discover)

    • Collect a range of pegs of different colours, sizes, shapes and strengths. Bulldog clips, hair clips and freezer bag clips can also be used.
    • Explore the activities in ‘Do and Discover’ – Wash Day, Handipegs, Ray of Sunshine, Colour Match.
    • Encourage the children to fasten the pegs using different fingers or sequence the pegs by colour or shape.
    • Model clipping pegs in sequence on a string, on paper plates and onto shapes, including large cut out letters.
    • Tongs and tweezers page 115 (Do and Discover)
      Collect a range of tweezers and tongs of different sizes and strengths and ask the children to pick up objects from a tray or basket. Progress to using ice cream tongs in the sand or sugar tongs in a sink full of water.
      This activity can be transferred outside to pick up leaves, twigs and pebbles.
    • Screwing up paper and smoothing it out
      Find a picture related to the theme and ask the child to hide it by screwing it up into a ball. Then ask the child to smooth it out using one hand to reveal the picture. This activity will develop different finger and hand muscles. Allow them to screw it back up again so that their partner can do the same, guessing what the picture is going to be.

    Finger rhymes – Page 77 & 79 (Do and Discover) e.g. Peter Pointer, Ten Fat sausages, Family of Fingers, Tall Shops, etc.

    • Model the finger rhymes and develop games using finger puppets to make wiggly movements with all the fingers.
    • Explore the rhymes in Do and Discover and add some more which will fit with the theme.
    • There are plenty of publications which feature finger rhymes or find some on the internet.

    Tall shops

    • Tall shops in the town (hold arms up).
    • Lifts moving up and down (arms go up and down).
    • Doors swinging round and round (swing/ circle arms).
    • People moving in and out (fingers walking back and fore).

    Family of Fingers

    • This is the father short and stout (thumb).
    • This is the mother with children about (index).
    • This is the brother tall you see (middle).
    • This is a sister with a toy on her knee (ring).
    • This is the baby sure to grow (little).
    • And here is the family all in a row (hold up all five fingers).

    Do and Discover, Movers and Creators, Play to Learn

    Jumping from pad to pad with object reference. Developing visual memory.*

    • Place hoops or lily pads made of carpet tiles, rubber or even card on the ground and see if the children can jump like a frog from one to another.
    • Can they follow each other from pad to pad?

    Lines with various media on the table or on the playground

    • Use crayons on paper, water on the yard, paint, slime and goo bags to give children the opportunity to draw lines from top to bottom or left to right.
    • Some children may need to trace with their fingers over raised lines stuck onto the table first. Others may need to make the shapes in the air.

    Making sausage shapes – rolling dough with both hands

    • Use soft dough or soften it before use.
    • Show the children how to roll the dough between their hands to make long sausage shapes.
    • Repeat on the table – ensure the children use both hands together.

    Walk the line – page 39 (Do and Discover)*

    • Lay out ropes in lines so that the children can walk along them keeping in a straight line.
    • Lay out footprints for them to follow.

    Catching bubbles and balloons*

    • Blow bubbles and try to catch them or clap their hands together to pop the bubbles.
    • Try different sized bubble rings.
    • Blow up balloons and encourage the children to catch them gently – so they don’t pop!

    *Activities marked by an asterix could be offered in a circuit in the playground so that the children have a variety of games to enjoy

Extension Activities

  • What Can We Do?

    Observation of children whilst playing and learning is useful to identify where extra practice is needed or where there is a range of confidence and competence with the skills. Some children will need further experience of the same activities, but others may progress quicker in some areas, so there should be flexibility to repeat or extend the games according to the children’s needs. Teachers who piloted the programme were keen to have additional suggestions for developing each area of activity. The following pages show some recommended extension activities which can be used to supplement the programme.

    Phonological awareness

    Find that sound

    Fill pairs of empty plastic screw top containers with a variety of dry things, e.g. marbles, paper clips, lentils, chick peas. If the children fill the containers they will become familiar with the content names. Ask the children to use their shakers to find another one with the same sound.

    Make up a rhythm and explore same and different, stopping and starting, loud and soft, fast and slow, first and last.

    Syllable Count

    *Take care not to confuse counting syllables with counting phonemes.

    Finish the name – say the first syllable of a two syllable name (e.g. Tom… Meg… or ham…). Then ask the children to complete it (Tomos, Megan or hamster).

    Say the word (e.g. yesterday), then use fingers to count the syllables (yes/ter/day).

    Rhyme using objects and actions

    • When children are listening to a poem or rhyme they need to make their own mental images to accompany what they hear or say. Using objects will help them and, later, pictures. Children need lots of practice with this because most have learned to depend on the television to provide images for them.
    • Rhyme round
      Place a set of rhyming objects on the floor. The children sit around the objects. Throw a bean bag around the group one-to-one and say the name of one of the rhyming objects as they throw.
    • Who is your partner?
      Put two sets of rhyming objects on the floor. Give one to each child, two from each set, e.g. cat and hat and frog and dog. The children find their partner and say the names of the objects together.
    • Number line song
      1, 2 buckle my shoe – change to ‘do up my shoe’?
      3, 4 knock on the door
      5, 6 pick up sticks
      7, 8 stand up straight
      9, 10 here’s my pen.
    • Listen to rhyme CDs whilst doing activities.
    • Oral cloze with popular rhymes using traditional rhymes, action rhymes, songs and jingles. With practice the children will soon be able to give the rhyme at the end of the line.
    • Retell popular rhymes with a twist
      Twinkle, twinkle chocolate bar.
    • Rhymes using pictures instead of objects
      Gather pictures of things in popular rhymes and sequence the pictures as you say the rhymes.
    • Rhyme families with pictures
      Collect rhyming pictures. Ask the children ‘Can I have a picture that rhymes with …?’)
    • Rhyming snap
      Limit the number of rhyming pictures to two or three for each rhyme to start and gradually increase more as confidence grows.
    • Rhyme activities using words
      Thread rhyming words onto a lace. Peg rhyming words onto a washing line.

    • Rhyme time
      Ask the children to listen to a word. If it rhymes with the word that they have in their hand then they can keep it. The winner is the first person to collect five rhyming words. Hunt for rhymes hidden in the garden and ask the children to read the rhymes to each other.
    • Initial Sound – Exploring the sounds and using everyday objects
    • I Spy
      Initial sounds (everyday objects in the classroom). Start with objects which begin with letter sounds which can be held continuously, e.g. ssscissors, mmmarbles, rrruler and limit the sounds to about three or the children will become confused. Name the object and exaggerate the initial sound. Increase the objects only gradually. The object is success.
    • I Spy
      ‘I went to the zoo/ park/ seaside and saw something beginning with…..’ This time the game can be related to the current theme, story or event.
    • Using pictures
    • Pairs
      Matching pictures to initial sounds.
    • Sound/picture mapping
      Matching pictures to sound by drawing lines or threading laces.
    • Bingo
      Matching pictures to initial sounds. Find pictures of objects which begin with the same letter as the picture on the card in their hand or find pictures of words in magazines that begin with the same letter.
    • Tongue twisters with a picture prompt
      Initial sounds and consonant blends (e.g. six silly seals swam sideways).
    • Using words
      Ask the children to think of words that begin like e.g. Tom.
      Ask the children to tell which word begins like e.g. milk.
      Say three words which begin like animal, mountain, bicycle.
      Find the word that is different at the beginning e.g. ‘paper, pear, table, puppet’.
    • Using Letters
      Arrange a collection of magnetic letters in an alphabet arc.
      Think of a word and ask the children to find the letter which makes the first sound of the word and the letter that makes the last sound of the word.
      This is not a spelling game but an activity to practise sound segmentation.

    Auditory Memory

    • Auditory attention
      Remember the children who have difficulty attending to what they hear are often those children who are very easily distracted by movement around them and have difficulty sitting still to listen.
    • Sound patterns
      Model clapping hands, bouncing a ball or beating a drum and ask how many beats you have made. Ask the children to clap two, three or four times or give them the drum to use. They may need you to prompt them at first.
    • Can you hear me?
      Play some quiet instrumental background music and repeat some sound pattern games. This will help children to learn to filter out particular sounds.
    • Hands Up!
      Play a CD of different sounds in sequence and ask the children to put up their hand when they hear a particular sound.

    Who is it?

    One child is blindfolded or sits with their back to the group. Another child says a short sentence. The first child itentifies the speaker by name.

    Auditory Memory

    Play Tidy Up!
    Play a tune. Give the children an instrument each and point to each to play in turn. Practise playing in order. Change the order and play again. Develop some patterns and rhythms and practise.

    Sound Order
    When using the alphabet arc and it is time to tidy away, ask for three letters at a time and the children should put them in the box in the same order. Build up to four letters.

    Loud or soft?
    Play an instrument loudly and then softly. Ask the children to copy the sequence. Build up to three sounds in sequence and encourage the children to remember and copy the loud and soft sounds.

    High or low?
    This game is like loud or soft but can be played on a keyboard and the children have to stand up/ raise a hand for high notes and sit/ fold their arms for low sounds.

    • Auditory sequential
      Tell and retell familiar stories and rhymes so that the children become more familiar with the events in sequence. They will begin to understand and recognise the patterns of the language used.
    • What’s my story?
      This needs lots of practice but will help the children to remember events in sequence. The children retell a familiar story and other members of the group guess the name of the story. Start with pictures as prompts and gradulally build up confidence.
    • Draw me
      Describe a character in a story or a toy by giving a few precise and limited details. Ask the children to draw the character/toy from your description.
    • Colour me
      A similar game to ‘Draw me’. Give each child a simple picture to colour and ask them to colour each part according to your instructions.
    • Make my model
      Have some construction kit pieces ready for the children to use. Make a simple model behind a screen and tell the children which pieces they should use step-by-step to copy the model from your instructions.
    Rapid naming
    An extension of the rapid naming games already played – these activities help children to focus on incoming words.What‘s my name?
    Collect a group of objects, a lipstick, pen, comb, sponge, etc. Show them to the children and practise naming and describing them. Put the objects in the feely bag and ask the child with eyes closed to reach into the bag and find something e.g. slippery or bendable or hard. Use your imagination to give clues.Opposites
    Revisit the feely bag. Ask children to take turns to find the object you are thinking about. Describe the object by opposites, e.g. find something which is the opposite of soft. Of course, there can be many open-ended answers to the question.

    Visual Memory

    What happens next?

    Model a series of movements, e.g. clap hands, touch ear and put hands on knees. Don’t give any verbal clues to the actions. The children then copy the actions.

    Draw me
    Trace a pattern on a textured cloth, in shaving foam or sand with glitter. The children copy the action. Build up to three or four patterns in sequence.

    Games with objects
    Where was I? – Place four or five toys or objects in a line in front of the child. Ask them to remember which was first, second, third, pointing to each one. Pick up the toys and give them to the child. Ask them to put them in the same order.

    Games with pictures or symbols
    Remember me – Show a picture – do not discuss it. Ask the children to look carefully and remember all they can see.

    Either take the picture away or ask the children to shut their eyes. Take it in turns to be first to recall what they have seen or ask the children specific questions about the detail of the picture.

    • Which is different?
      Print several copies of the same picture. Make a slight change to one of them and ask the children to pick out the picture which is different. Add more copies as they find it easier or add another difference.
    • What’s missing?
      Show the children a simple picture and then show them the same picture which is incomplete. Ask them to add what is missing and complete the picture from memory.
    • Some old favourites! – Snap cards
      Picture pelmanism – Recall and sequence a series of three to four pictures which tell a story. Lay out an alphabet arc placing wooden or plastic alphabet letters in sequence. Start with just a few at the start of the alphabet and ask the child to copy the sequence with another set of letters.
    • Sequencing
      Recall and sequence a series of letters on cards and copy the sequence with a duplicate set of cards.
    • Lay out an alphabet arc
      *A useful way of clearing away the alphabet arc is to show the child a card with a series of three letters on it and the child has to put the letters away in that order – no verbal clues!
    • Games with words
      Word Bingo, Snap, Pelmanism are all familiar games. Use high frequency words which are the focus of the week or which relate to the current theme.

    Manual Dexterity/Sequencing and Colour

    • Thread string and other things – thread breakfast loop cereals onto liquorice laces (yum).
    • Thread pasta tubes onto lace
    • Make fruit kebabs – thread foods onto skewers
    • Thread marshmallows onto dried spaghetti – careful not to break the spaghetti
    • Coloured paper shapes with a hole punched in the centre
      *See Creature Connect activity, page 73 of ‘Do and Discover’
    • Draw some animals, but draw the legs separately – punch holes at the top of the legs and also at appropriate points on the animal’s body. Use treasury tags to attach the body parts.
    • Make home-made lacing cards
    • Make shapes to match topics/themes
    • Collect tops from milk cartons, etc. – Prepare tops by piercing a hole through the middle of all the tops. Thread to make a squiggly caterpillar
    Clip, Clip and Peg
    Use different size clothes pegs to pin up numbers, dolls clothes or play a matching game by pinning up socks on a washing line.Sequence clothes pegs of different colours by clipping them onto one another.Make a play dough base and insert the clipping end into the dough.

Give the children some pegs each and see if they can build a peg tree by adding a peg on each turn.

Write the letters of the alphabet on small pieces of paper and tape them to clothes pegs or print the letters right on the clothes pegs.
Cut out magazine pictures, one for each letter of the alphabet, and have the children match the clothes peg letters to the beginning sounds of the objects in the pictures. They can clip the clothes pegs to the corresponding pictures as they find them!

Pick Up Bits – Tongs and Tweezers
Use ice cream tongs in wet sand.
Bury items in sand or other textures and encourage the children to find the items. See if they can remember what went into the sand and what is missing.
Make some ice cubes and let them float in water. See if the children can catch the ‘icebergs’ with their tongs.

Play as part of a gross motor activity
Using tongs the children have to move cotton wool balls from one end of the room to the other as fast as they can.
Use different methods of travel each time (run, go sideways, etc.)
See who has the most cotton wool balls in one minute for example, to make it more competitive.

Finger Rhymes
There are so many on the internet! They are best linked to the current theme or topic in order to narrow it down.

5 Caterpillars
Five caterpillars
Five caterpillars (hands out wiggle fingers)
Where have they gone? (curl fingers up into a fist)
Hiding away all day long.
Five Caterpillars,
Here they come
Wiggly squiggly one by one (release the fingers slowly)

Five Red Apples
Five Red Apples
Hanging on a tree (five fingers held up)
The juiciest apples you ever did see!
The wind came past
And gave an angry frown (shake head and look angry)
And one little apple came tumbling down.
Four red apples, etc.

Wiggle Worms (A Movement Rhyme)
Once there were some little worms.
And all they did, was squirm and squirm.
They wiggled and wiggled up and down.
They wiggled and wiggled all around.
(Let your children squirm around for a while).
They wiggled and wiggled and wiggled until,
They were tired and could sit very still. (Have children sit down).
Now they could listen,
Now they could see
All of the things
I have here with me.

The Spider Spins a Web (Tune: The Farmer In The Dell)
The spider spins a web. (spin and twirl)
The spider spins a web. (spin and twirl)
Round, round, up and down, (crouch low, reach high)
The spider spins a web. (spin and twirl).

Additional verses:
She spins it in and out.
She spins it to and fro.

Physical Development: Do and Discover, Movers and Creators, Play to Learn

There are many ideas for suggested activities in Do and Discover covering both fine and gross motor skills. If a child needs further practice in some movement skills there are a huge range of activities with pictures which will help a practitioner to devise, adapt and modify games to extend the experience in a fun way and to meet individual need or specific areas of difficulty.

Here are a few more ideas:

  • Hipperty Hop
    More Froggy Jumps
    Jump off low obstacles.
  • Jump over low obstacles
    Start jumping over chalk lines and then over low obstacles, e.g. bean sticks resting horizontally on PE plastic flexi cones.
  • Hopping on the spot
    Jumping along ‘lily pads’, e.g. using plastic non-slip coloured circles or small mats can be changed to hopping from lily pad to lily pad.
  • Leap over very low object
    e.g. draw two lines (short distance apart) to be the pond. The children run up and leap over the pond.
  • Jump or hop with a partner
    Jump over a wiggling skipping rope
    *All the activities can be completed individually or can be set up as a circuit so that the children have more fun practising a variety of skills together

Hands on Literacy Activities

  • The Hands on Literacy Programme


    • Use objects as far as possible rather than pictures.
    • Make as many games as active as possible.
    • When tracing and drawing use as much textural feedback as possible.
    • Use different media for similar activities.
    • Link the activities to topical themes and projects in the classroom.

    Activities – Introductory week

    Phonological awareness

    • Nursery rhymes – introducing and revising popular rhymes. Pori Drwy Stori cards and audio resources.
    • Alliteration – letter actions and matching game.
    • Segmentation/syllables – names – clapping/tapping syllables in children’s names.

    Auditory memory

    • Recognising sounds and musical instruments.
    • I went out to play with……
    • Rapid naming – pointing to and naming objects.

    Visual Memory

    • What’s missing – Place six objects on a tray, ask the children to look carefully. Name all the objects.
    • Copying patterns – lines (top to bottom first).
    • Frog jumps with bean bags (see page 23 – Do and Discover).

    Manual Dexterity / Sequencing and Colour – one timed activity per week, fine and gross motor.

    • Threading and sequencing large beads (see page 117 large beads – Do and Discover).
    • Peg activities (see page 107 + 109 – Do and Discover).
    • Finger rhymes (see page 79 Tall shops – Do and Discover).

    Physical Development Activities

    Links to Play to Learn resource cards and skills (Appendix 6).
    Opportunities need to be created for:

    • Locomotor development.
    • Body Management Actions (balance and co-ordination skills).
    • Manipulative actions.
    • Focusing on relevant stage of learning.

    Activities – Weeks 1 to 4

    Phonological awareness

    • Nursery rhymes. Matching objects which rhyme.
    • Alliteration – letter actions and matching game. Find the letters – letter hunt, round the room, in the playground/nature area.
    • Segmentation/syllables – names – clapping/tapping syllables. Matching groups of objects with the same number of syllables

    Auditory memory

    • Recognising sounds and musical instruments. Progression – Two instruments are played in order behind a screen. Each is played in turn and the children are asked to play them in the same order. Repeat.
    • I went out to play with…, I went shopping and I bought…
    • Rapid naming (one timed activity per week).

    Visual Memory

    • What’s missing – Place six objects on a tray, ask the children to look carefully. Name all the objects. Remove one of the objects.
    • Ask the children to say what is missing. Repeat until all the objects have had a turn at being removed. Repeat naming of objects.
    • Copying patterns – lines (top to bottom first) progressing to circles.
    • Frog jumps with bean bags (see page 23 – Do and Discover).

    Manual Dexterity/ Sequencing and Colour

    • Threading and sequencing large beads (see page 117 large beads – Do and Discover).
    • Peg activities (see page 107 + 109 + Tongs and tweezers page 115 – Do and Discover).
    • Scrunching up paper and smoothing it out with one hand.
    • Finger rhymes (see page 79 Tall shops – Do and Discover).

    Physical Development

    Developing Locomotor Skills using ‘Play to Learn’ resource cards Jumping Jade, Spot to Spot.
    Focus skills: Crawling, Crawling soldier, Walking, Foxes, Running, Jumping and Landing.
    With opportunities to develop: Increasing control of large body movements, Jump and land safely, e.g. from pad to pad.
    Recognise and use different body parts, Show improved balance and co-ordination.
    Other opportunities may include:

    • Circles and lines with various media on the table or outside on the playground.
    • Shape-making using play dough – rolling into a ball, pinching and poking.
    • Walk the line (see page 39, Circuit activities – Do and Discover).
    • Catching bubbles and balloons.

    Activities – Weeks 5 to 8

    Phonological awareness

    • Matching objects which rhyme – continued. Net the rhymes. Rhyme bag sorting games.
    • Alliteration – letter actions and matching game. Hunt the letter. Focus on those posing rapid naming difficulties.
    • Segmentation/syllables – names – revision – add more objects. Cut up pictures. Build up to three and four syllables.

    Auditory memory

    • Recognising musical instruments – Selection of instruments are played in order behind a screen. Each is played in turn and the children are asked to play them in the same order. Build up to three instruments. Hone for better acuity and increase speed.
    • I went to the shop and bought… Alternatives linked to theme.
    • Rapid naming (one timed activity per week) within other activities, using more objects. Link to theme.

    Visual Memory

    • What’s missing – naming eight objects on a tray – link to theme. Rapid naming then remove several the objects. Ask the children to say what is missing. Repeat until all the objects have had a turn at being removed. Repeat naming of objects.
    • Copying patterns – lines and circles using chalk boards and materials e.g. carpet, cord, silk, velvet. Introduce wiggly lines and zig zags.
    • Frog jumps with bean bags (see page 23 – Do and Discover) increasing distance.*

    Manual Dexterity/ Sequencing and Colour – one timed activity per week, fine and gross motor.

    • Threading and sequencing large beads (see page 117 – Do and Discover) using scrunchies, cotton reels and lids for sequencing colour and pattern.) Introduce more items and complexity of sequence.
    • Peg activities (see page 107 + 109 – Do and Discover) + Tongs and tweezers; (also see page 115 – Do and Discover) progress to using ice cream tongs in the sand or ice cubes in coloured water.
    • Scrunching up paper and smoothing it out.
    • Finger rhymes (see page 79 – Do and Discover). Tall shops. Peter Pointer. Ten Fat Sausages etc.) Add more rhymes linked to theme.

    Physical Development
    Developing Locomotor Skills using ‘Play to Learn’ resource cards Jumping Jade, Spot to Spot.
    Focus skills: Crawling, Crawling soldier, Walking, Foxes, Running, Jumping and Landing.
    With opportunities to develop: Increasing control of large body movements, Jump and land safely, e.g. *from pad to pad – focus on visual memory; Recognise and use different body parts, Show improved balance and co-ordination.
    Other opportunities may include:

    • Circles, wavy and zig-zag lines with various media on the table or outside on the playground.
    • Shape-making using play dough – *rolling into a ball, pinching and poking.
    • *Walk the line (see page 39, Circuit activities – Do and Discover).
    • *Catching bubbles and balloons.

    Activities with * could be in a circuit.

    Useful resources for the activities in Hands on Literacy

    Phonological awareness
    Nursery rhyme book, nursery rhyme resources Developing physical skills, Pori Drwy Stori verse cards and audio resources.
    Cardboard letter templates of various sizes – lower case.
    Objects/ toys which can be grouped in bags according to:

    • number of syllables in name – 1, 2, 3 and possibly 4
    • rhyme in name
    • characters in a nursery rhyme
    • initial sound in name.
    • Small hoops or nets for sorting objects.

    Auditory memory

    • Set of small percussion instruments.
    • Groups of familiar objects/toys.

    Visual memory

    • Changeable group of familiar objects on a tray.
    • Patterns on cards – lines top to bottom, zigzags, loops, waves and circles for copying.
    • Sand tray, shaving foam, slime bags.
    • Variety of materials for finger tracing – cord, silk, velvet, fleece, fake fur, carpet.
    • Collections of coloured sticks, buttons, large beads, straws etc. for copying sequences.
    • Beans bags, hoops and floor pads for frog jumps.

    Manual Dexterity

    • Beads, cut up straws, scrunchies, cotton reels, lids, plastic rods, straws, laces, strings, and small sticks for threading activities.
    • Variety of pegs, paper plates, leaves, cut-up shapes, coloured socks.
    • Variety of tongs and tweezers and collections of items to be picked up.
    • Collection of finger rhymes with finger and hand puppets.
    • Pictures linked to the theme to be scrunched up.

    Physical Development

    • Do and Discover, Movers and Creators (copy of each book) and Play to Learn (copy of activity cards)
    • Coloured floor spots, balls, hoops, bean bags or soft toys, chalks, felt pens, squeezy bottles with water, dough, skipping ropes, bubbles and balloons.

A Multi-sensory Environment

  • Multisensory Learning

    Multisensory learning takes place when a teacher provides opportunities for a child to use all their senses together, seeing, hearing, touching (hands-on) saying (oral kinaesthetic) and sometimes taste and smell. The use of a multisensory approach to learning has been shown to be effective for all children.Multisensory learning is the most natural way to learn. People of all ages gather information for processing through their senses, but for young children their curiosity to explore the sensual world around them is what makes learning fun. Almost anything that children can handle can be used to engage and motivate them.

    Research suggests that a multisensory approach, which allows for integration of all the sensory pathways together, makes the learning process more effective. When all the senses are explored the multisensory activity will match any weaker skills and strengths enabling all cognitive skills to be addressed.

    Using all the sensory pathways together means information is more effectively retained and if activities are introduced in small steps, within a structured programme the more efficiently and effectively skills are developed.

    Creating a Multisensory Environment

    • The following activities and resources encourage the development and refinement of early literacy development, hand/eye co-ordination and fine motor skills. The ‘Hands On’ Literacy Programme depends upon resourcing from a range of media but most items are easily found or prepared. These suggestions support those already included in the ‘Do and Discover ‘ book and should be used alongside them.
    • It may be useful to have a collection of resources readily available in one or more multisensory boxes. Laying out carefully labelled activities and covering the boxes with colourful stickers and pictures will help to attract the children and encourage them to return items to the area or boxes after use. The children should be encouraged to practise some of the fine manipulation skills essential to the development of early learning using a range of items in the boxes.
    • You may want to have a semi-permanent display of materials in an activity corner so that the children can play some of the games and activities at different times during the day. The activities should be modelled, structured and monitored to have the most effect and to maintain interest they should be changed regularly.
    • Many of these materials are messy and the objects small. Great care should be taken to ensure that small objects are kept out of children’s mouths and are returned to appropriate containers after use.
    • Whilst many of the most enjoyable activities are messy there should be built-in opportunities for washing and supervised clearing-up after use.

    What can we put in a Multisensory Box?

    • Acorns, conkers, leaves, twigs and stones
      Perfect for making patterns and letter shapes. These could be collected during outdoor activities and stored outside.
    • Beads, laces and lacing cards
      Use different sized beads, hollow pasta shapes, hair scrunchies, pot tops and cardboard hoops as alternatives and make funky jewellery or encourage them to copy a pattern of shapes and colours.
    • Bubble wrap
      Different sizes of bubble wrap for snapping between fingers and thumb. This will strengthen fingers for writing.
    • Bubbles and balloons
      Blow bubbles and catch as many as you can before they fall to the floor. Throw, pat and catch balloons.
    • Cardboard letters and shapes
      Use a template to make 2-D shapes and letter shapes out of card and hide them in the classroom or even better in the outdoor play area or garden and have a shape or letter hunt.

    Collections of small objects
    Sort into alliterative groups, put into cloth bags and play matching and sorting games. Sort into rhyming pairs or groups and play matching games.

    Coloured buttons
    Encourage children to thread buttons in a sequence or hide them in the dough for children to ‘feel and find’.

    Dough or plasticine
    Encourage the children to roll, squeeze and model the dough into their favourite animals or monsters and eventually letters. Encourage rolling and squeezing as separate activities which develop different muscles in the hands and fingers.

    Fabric samples
    Keep a selection of squares of fabrics for the children to trace on e.g. silk, velvet, corduroy, fake fur, suede, tweed, They will get good tactile feeback through their fingers. Start with shapes and patterns and progress to letter shapes.

    Finger paints
    Allow the children to paint on different textures and surfaces using their fingers.

    Finger puppets
    Encourage children to say finger rhymes, tell stories or perform plays using a variety of finger puppets.

    Floor pads
    For jumping onto/around in a pattern. Ensure they are non-slip! Encourage the children to copy a sequence of jumps.

    Letter templates
    Make a large letter from a template and provide appropriate materials to stick onto the letter shape to reinforce sound/symbol correspondence e.g. feathers on f, purple scrunchedup paper on p, bear stickers on b, leaves on l. The children can keep them as reminders of letter sounds.

    Marbles and tiddlywinks
    Encourage the children to play games where they manipulate counters or marbles with their fingers.

    Musical instruments
    e.g. a tambourine, a shaker, bells, and a clapper to encourage children to differentiate sounds and to copy a sequence.

    Pegs – coloured and novelty pegs
    Provide a range of pegs and sort according to colour or size, peg to a paper plate or in sequence on a line. Play a relay game where children have to race to peg the number cards on a line in the correct order.

    Make and copy designs to help manipulation skills. Keep the patterns simple and the variation of colour to two or three.

    Pick-up sticks and coins
    Encourage the children to pick up coins and sticks between finger and thumb acting like tweezers or make it more difficult and use real tweezers. Extend to scooping from wet sand with an ice-cream scoop or ice cubes from water with tongs.

    Pipe cleaners
    Collect a variety of coloured and sparkly pipe cleaners and twist them to make animal or letter shapes, plaiting – using different coloured thread, cord or strips of material. Start with two pieces and move on to three.

    Scissors (a variety of easy grip, spring assisted, etc)
    Encourage the children to develop manipulation and dexterity using strategies suggested in the ‘Do and Discover’ pack.

    Shaving foam and sand
    Talk through the shapes and pattern formations as children write in the foam and sand, then make it disappear and ‘try again’. Encourage children to ‘talk through’ actions and patterns.

    Slime or ‘goo’ bags
    Make slime or goo with children (see instructions ), put into sealable bags, show them how to squash the colours together and draw and make patterns or letters on the bags.

    Small balls and bean bags
    For throwing, catching and to encourage children to hide and find the balls and bean bags without leaving the place they are sitting. Model a pattern of throws and see if the children can copy the sequence.

    Tweezers, tongs and scoops
    A selection of different sizes and strengths to encourage squeezing actions with differenet parts of the hands and fingers.

    Water writing
    Fill an empty plastic bottle with water and squirt shapes and letters onto a dry playground or wall.

    Weaving activities
    Large scale at first, then smaller using a variety of materials.

    Wooden letters and shapes
    Put a letter or shape in a feely bag and encourage the children to guess which letter/ shape it is by touch only. Encourage them to describe the shape of what they feel.

    • Use and adapt whatever resources you have in school.
    • Make the activities fun for all the children.
    • Photograph activities and display them near the materials so that the children can see what to do for themselves. This will encourage them to practise whenever it is appropriate and not just when assistance is available.
    • Remember to model and demonstrate all activities for children and break down all tasks into small achievable steps.
    • As children experience success they will feel more self-confident and motivated to learn.

    How to make slime and goo bags

    What equipment do we need?

    • Wooden spoon
    • Small plastic bags with a strong seal
    • Access to cooker hob

    What ingredients do we need?

    • 1/3 cup cornflour
    • 2 cups water
    • Just under 1/3 cup sugar
    • Food colouring

    What do we do?

    • Pour the water, sugar and cornflour into the saucepan and mix, stirring the whole time
    • Bring to the boil until it looks like Vaseline / paste
    • Wait to cool
    • Pour a small amount into plastic bags, add the food colouring and seal

    Some ideas to create a Multisensory Alphabet

    • A secure knowledge of letter/sound correspondence can be enhanced by providing a multisensory alphabet for each child.
    • Draw the outline of each letter on an A5 card. The children can glue a key material onto each letter shape and they have something of their own which will give them a way of remembering the letter sound.
    • Make letters from objects you find in the classroom or school garden.
    • Some multisensory activities will also ensure that the children remember the time when they made the letter and had some fun!

    You can use your own ideas but here are some to get you started:-

    Aa Draw ants on the template.
    Bb Blow up blue balloons, Play bat and ball or use the b shape to ‘bat’ a small ping pong ball into a box.
    Cc Eat carrots and stick counters onto the C shape.
    Dd Stick peel off dots onto the D shape and eat doughnuts.
    Ff Flip small plastic frogs onto the F shape. Stick fake feathers onto F.
    Gg Glue green glitter onto the G shape and hunt for G letter templates hidden in the garden. Play guitar music. Strum the guitar.
    Hh Attach small sticky heart shapes to the H and wear funny hats for the afternoon.
    Pp Stick purple or pink scrunched-up paper onto the P shape and eat pizza.
    Uu Push up cocktail umbrellas and say u…u…u… Shelter ‘under’ the umbrella.


Appendix 1
Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test (Aston Index Revised Edition)

Appendix 2
Pre-screen checklist

Appendix 3
Effect of Hands on Literacy Intervention

Appendix 4
Early Identification and Intervention Record Sheet

Appendix 5
  • Adams, M.J., Foorman, B., Lundberg, I. & Beeler, T. (1998) Phonemic Awareness in Young Children, Paul Brookes Publishing
  • Baldwin Liz (2006) I Hear with my Little Ear, LDA
  • BDA (1993) Opening the Door, British Dyslexia Association
  • BDA (1997)Dyslexia in Primary Schools, Assessment into Action, British Dyslexia Association
  • DfES (2007) Letters and Sounds
  • Drew, S. Do and Discover (2008) BCBC
  • Elks, L. & McLachlan, H. (2006) Early Language Builders, Elkan
  • Fawcett, A.J. & Nicolson, R. DEST -2 (2004) Psychological Corporation
  • Fawcett A.J., Nicolson, R.I. & Lee, R. (2000) The Pre-school Screening Test, Psychological Corporation
  • Hornsby, B. (1999) Before Alpha, Souvenir Press
  • Language Links (2004) BCBC
  • Milne, D. (2005) Teaching the Brain to Read, Smart Kids publishing
  • Muter, V. (2003) Early Reading Development and Dyslexia, Whurr Publishers
  • Nash-Wortham, M. & Hunt, J. (1990) Take Time, Robinswood Press
  • Pascal, C. & Bertram, T. (2000) Effective Early Learning, Hodder and Stoughton
  • Speechlink Multimedia (2006)
  • Vail, P. (1991) Common Ground: Whole Language and Phonics Working Together, Modern Learning Press
  • Vail, P. (1992) Learning Styles: Food for thought and 130 Practical Tips for Teachers, Modern Learning Press
  • Curriculum for Wales: Foundation Phase Framework (2015)
  • Welsh Assembly Government Foundation Phase Profile Handbook (2015)
    Baseline Assessment
Appendix 6